A group of researchers from the University of Pittsburgh (United States) detected a gene that increases the risk of obesity for 30-40 percent. Discovered Gene Variant is the most potent of all hereditary factors found in the human body so far. The work of researchers published in the journal Nature Genetics.
A team of scientists led by Stephen MakGarvi (Stephen McGarvey) conducted a study of the genome of more than five thousand indigenous inhabitants of the archipelago. The choice of researchers fell on the Samoans, as the region recorded one of the highest rates of obesity in the world.
It turned out that about a quarter of the surveyed have a specific gene variant CREBRF, which contributes to an increase in body mass index at 1.5 per cent. For example, for a person of average height weighing 82 kilos extra weight will be 4.6 kilograms.
CREBRF makes fat cells store more fat and allocate less energy, the researchers note. This property effectively in times of food scarcity, however, when excess products it leads to excess weight.
"Despite the fact that we have found the Gene Variant with a reasonable biological mechanism, it (version CREBRF) is just one of many reasons for the high rate of body mass index and obesity disease among the Samoans," said Stephen MakGarvi.
Other factors of the disease decreased physical activity Samoan indigenous population and changing their diet as part of a global trend to consume high-calorie foods.
Scientists link gene with availability history of colonization of the Pacific Islands: about 3500 years ago, the ancestors of the Samoans started the process of settling in 24 major island groups in Polynesia. To do this, they had to spend a lot of energy is removed from island to island, and survive in the new Wednesday. The problem of the current population of the Samoan Island chain that the gene they no longer need, and this, according to the researchers, explains the reason for the existence of extra weight of an overwhelming majority of Samoans.
"200 years ago the Samoans do not suffer from obesity. Quickly changed not the gene, rapidly varied nutritional Wednesday, "said MakGarvi.
However, virtually no CREBRF common among Europeans, Africans and inhabitants of East Asian countries.